Taking a couple steps back and considering the profundity of the title question indicates how its richness may define years of concentrated study. Jen’s 3/4 class recently dove deep to begin unraveling its myriad answers, a project they took on from multiple angles. The unit blended an ELA focus on storytelling, reading comprehension, and writing proficiency with historical and social studies to give students a profound appreciation for the ways in which humans use stories to create culture, across the globe and throughout civilization. First, they sampled folktales from various countries, supplementing their understanding of content with maps and features of different regions. They thereby examined the diversity of backgrounds that influence cultures, and the similarities in structure and character by which many folktales convey overlapping messages, even when they originate from vastly different areas or time periods. Students then chose a country or region in which to explore, and they researched the area with the intent to write a new folk tale that could accurately originate within the culture they selected. People and regions in question spanned from the Americas to Asia, Europe, Africa, and Australia. To help guide their research, Jen offered credible, readable, online sources. And, to present an authentic depiction, students needed to use ‘clues’ within their stories that were specific to the culture they had chosen: names and phrases used within the region, as well as character development and detail that fit within its relative traditions. What rituals are typical among the people? What tools and objects hold specific significance? What food and drink? What does the culture value that helps to define their sense of community? By researching such questions, students deepened their empathy in arriving at answers, which provided them with rich material by which to write their own narratives. In addition to written their versions, they also constructed 3-D representations of artifacts from particular cultures, and they honed their oral communication skills by presenting their work out loud in presentations to their classmates. In essence, therefore, each student became a resident guide for a specific culture from around the world, and, in the processes of presenting their findings to one another, they collectively acquired a sense of how knowledge of diversity helps us all to better understand the complexities of what it means to be human.